How to become a programmer from scratch in 2022

A programmer is someone who writes software for computers, mobile applications, and websites. Programmers also play a role in the maintenance of computer systems and applications, as well as identifying and fixing issues to ensure that everything is running smoothly.

Programming is a highly sought-after field with a lucrative pay rate for a number of years. Quarantine has shown another advantage of this profession: the flexibility to work from home, and work anyplace around the globe.

In this article, we’ll discuss what the areas can be in programming. the types of people who would be a good fit for this field and how you can master this skill.

Who is a programmer and what exactly does he do

Programming is essential in many fields: medicine, industry transportation, science, and more. The code is required for the creation of a microwave an ATM or intelligent sensor CNC machine and many more things.

The sphere is vast and is a sphere with its own directions. Let’s look at each.

Frontend development

The front-end of the website is responsible for the way that the interface for the web (website or online store and so on.) looks.

In order to develop into a front-end developer, You must be aware of HTML as well as CSS markup languages along with JavaScript. The two markup languages can be taught in just a few days, while JS will take a lot longer, even though it is widely regarded as one of the easiest programming languages to learn.

Backend development

The backend is the basis for the way that the web interface functions. It is the hardware and software parts that are invisible to the user. In the event that the front-end developer is accountable for, for instance, the appearance of the cart and functions, the back-end developer connects the cart to the registration form.

Backend development includes:

  • Ensuring the proper functioning of all functions on the website;
  • Work with databases;
  • development of the logic of the fundamentals and algorithms for application
  • API as well as integration to other services.

Full-stack development

An all-stack developer is a multi-faceted specialist who handles both the backend and frontend. This job is ideal for those looking to build complete systems.

Mobile Development

This includes the creation of many applications for tablets, smartphones and other devices. A mobile developer writes games, applications for banks, deliveries, taxis, educational companies, etc. This trend is extremely popular with the increasing number of users are ditching computers for smartphones.

System Programming

This involves programming hardware commands for processors, microcontrollers to control robots, IoT sensors and operating systems. A well-developed logical mind and engineering mind is required for the developer.

Data Science

Data analysis is performed by a programmer analyst. It seeks patterns in an enormous quantity of data, allowing to create forecasts and analytics.

Data Science is also utilized in the creation of AI algorithms and bots. This is a profession that is thought to be as one of the most difficult and well-paid in IT.


A DevOps engineer is a combination of a programmer and administrator of systems. It manages the administration and development departments and automates the tasks associated with setting up and deploying applications.

It is difficult to master this career from scratch. you need a background in technology for instance, in the administration of systems. To be successful, you must have an extensive outlook and understanding of a variety of IT domains.

Applied Development and Business Software

In this regard, developers must create programs from scratch (graphic editors computers, computer games, business automation software, and so on.). Most of the time, experienced programmers are required in this field as it’s complicated.

Who is suitable to work as an engineer

Engineers and cleaners alike can learn programming, the only issue is how to motivate yourself. The job is not simple but once you are mastering it more than one time, you’ll want to stop all things. However, it is important to master not only to write your code but also to translate the desires of the client into a program easily understood by both the user and machines.

The job of a programmer is ideal for you if you possess the following soft abilities:

  • Logical thinking. Specialists must be able to translate complicated phenomena into simpler ones, find connections and create an order of events and then search for the most effective solution.
  • Attention to detail. It is essential to pay attention to every detail when programming. It’s enough not to include a period and the code won’t function. It could take hours to locate the missing element in many lines.
  • Capability to do work in a monotonous manner. This aspect is similar to the preceding one. The software requires a high level of concentration for long periods of time. If you are unable to spend a few hours in front of the computer, it might not be simple to master the field.
  • Self-learning is essential. The field of programming is enormous and frameworks, languages and other related technologies are always evolving. It is essential to keep up-to-date continuously, otherwise, you’ll soon lose your competitive edge.
  • Teamwork skills. Programmers don’t always work on his own. He has to interact with the team leader, project manager, testers and other team members. It is also beneficial to be aware of Agile, Scrum or Kanban methodologies for the development of products.
  • The ability to speak English. Most development orders originate via Europe as well as the USA Documentation for projects is provided in English. Sometimes, developers must demonstrate their product to a client and having a fluent conversation in English is crucial here. Additionally, being familiar with the language can help you navigate through English-language guides, blogs, and forums.
  • The ability to resist stress and the readiness to process. It is not necessary to do a lot of overtime However, you may require urgent adjustments and address problems. In reputable companies processing, employees are paid by cash or by days off.

What kind of skills do programmers require?

The following abilities (technical skills) are crucial for programming.

Understanding the basic principles of OOP

Object-oriented programming is a method that is based upon representing programs as collections of objects, in which each of them belongs to the same class, and classes are arranged in the inheritance structure.

It is crucial to know the 4 fundamentals of OOP:

  • abstraction;
  • inheritance;
  • encapsulation;
  • polymorphism.

Understanding the fundamentals of computing science

It is essential to understand the fundamentals of computer science, including binary and hexadecimal system, concepts of computer operations and data types.

ability to interact with databases

The programmer should be able to comprehend their fundamental logic and be able access the logic.

The ability to use a programming language and at a minimum one framework

Are you in business? Sign up to the Telegram channel of the founder of FireSEO An businessman with over 10 many years of experience. Roman Dzhunusov. The channel only shares personal stories about management, business, and self-development.

For junior programmers, It is enough to have a good understanding of the language you choose along with a framework — and platform for software that makes it easier to develop products.

Popular programming languages

There are over 300 languages but not all are used widely. We will discuss the 10 most used languages (at the date that we write) as per Tiobe. This includes the languages where the majority of codes are written.


Python is a very simple language that is simple, logical, and comes with a limited list of basic rules. Numerous libraries have been developed to support it, meaning you can utilize ready-made solutions for your projects. It’s an excellent beginner’s language.

It is employed in the back-end development of neural networks Data Science Game development.


C is a lower-level programming language that allows direct control of hardware. It’s a difficult language to master however, once you have mastered it, you’ll be able to learn other languages.

Projects written in C are extremely fast. Applications for smartphones and computer operating systems, databases games, applications for appliances at home, and smart devices are written in C.

The places it’s utilized: wherever high-performance code is needed.


Java is an ancestor to the C language. It was developed according to the model of object-oriented programming. Java is a cross-platform program Java program that is written in Java can be executed in Windows, Linux and macOS.

There are a lot of libraries that help you accomplish common tasks. It’s adaptable, and it isn’t the most complex syntax, but it’s difficult to use.

The places it’s utilized: Android development, development of web-based applications web servers industrial banking, scientific software, and banking.


The language is an object-oriented programming language that can be found in a variety of locations. It is fast and lets you manipulate data on a smaller scale which is the same level as the hardware level.

C++ is complex and it is essential to be aware of how hardware works and how operating systems work. Many programmers write code using the language, so it is possible to get help from your colleagues with experience.

What it can be utilized: development of games for PC, Xbox, and PlayStation creating neural networks, drivers, and operational networks.


C-sharp was invented by Microsoft for their projects. It allows you to make games using DirectX as well as Unity.

C# is simple to use, and it doesn’t require many lines of code to use it. It’s cross-platform which means it is able to be used on various operating systems.

Where is it utilized: development of desktop and mobile apps games, websites, and websites.


It’s a powerful multi-platform web development language. It provides the following benefits:

  • It is only necessary to use a browser for the creation and execution of the code
  • numerous guides and solutions that are ready to use;
  • the browser will let you know the problem and what you can do to fix it.
  • the effects of the work can be seen the results of the work are visible
  • the code is simple to test.

JavaScript is simple enough to master. It is also necessary to learn HTML and CSS because these programs are used in tandem.

The places it’s employed: creating web and desktop applications, browser extensions, and browser games.


A structured query language that explains how to handle data from databases. It is used to construct databases, retrieve, alter and store data and perform calculations, as well as create tables, and so on.

SQL is simple to master and is essential for every web developer because every website contains information.

Where is it employed: web development, administration Testing, administration.


The language was developed to facilitate web development on the backend aspect. It is utilized to work with databases, build search engines on the website, and create comments. A lot of websites work with PHP, for instance, VKontakte.

The language is fairly easy to master, however you will need to be familiar with HTML, CSS, and JavaScript

Where is it utilized: backend development.

Where can you learn to be programmers Courses online

One of the biggest Russian firms that provide top-quality programming education. Its main areas include DevOps, Data Science, web and Python development, C ++, and Java.

A great deal of theory, lots of practice, and learning using a specially-designed simulator. During the training, various projects will be developed that could be included in a portfolio.

The first lessons are for free. Learn the fundamentals of the language and attempt to write code. This will allow you not just to test the resource you have chosen to learn from however, but it will also help you choose the right programming language.

In the initial part of the free part of the program, the bot will discuss the work


The company offers courses under a state education license. They also issue the certificate of professional Retraining. For programming, they offer 100 classes, both long and short, suitable for both beginners and advanced.

The company teaches not only languages but also teamwork. Provides employment assistance, which is enshrined in the contract. 


Large educational platform offering courses lasting from 5 to 24 months. It offers a lot of practice based on real cases. 

Classes are taught by experienced specialists from large companies, such as EPAM Systems, CIAN, etc. It is possible to defer payment for 6 months and get an installment plan. 


This is an online course for learning Java, which is 80% practical. There are 1200 lessons divided into 40 modules. Each of them opens if the previous one is well learned. You can study at any time.


The platform offers training in the main IT areas and helps to get internships in large organizations.  

The company also has free small courses, such as “Python development for beginners” and “First steps in JavaScript.” They will help you get to know the profession and the site itself. 

Still factory

The company is a leader in data science education. She also offers to learn web development, testing, game creation, programming, etc. 

Training is long-term and can be completed without interruption from work. Class formats constantly alternate so that it is not boring to study. 


The company offers quality courses that are quoted by many companies and are seen as a plus. Each student after training is interviewed in the partner companies of the site. Training is long, with a lot of practice. There are free introductory courses. 

Best English Programming Courses 


This is an English-language platform created in 2012 by professors at Stanford University. It is one of the best in the field of distance education and offers many courses in various specialties, including programming.

Training is in English, many videos contain Russian subtitles. It’s free, but without feedback. If you need a test from a teacher or a certificate, you need to pay about $ 50. If there are no funds at all, you can get financial assistance.


This resource is similar to the previous one, only most of the courses are paid. Some of them are sold at inflated prices, but you can wait for a discount. 

Courses are rated by students and reviews, which helps to find the best quality material. There is a certificate, but it is not particularly valued.


It is a private educational organization created out of the computer science program at Stanford University. On it you will find quality courses for both beginners and advanced. Education is by subscription, the price starts at $ 100. There are free materials. 


The platform offers step-by-step online lessons with the ability to practice directly in the browser. There are also free mini-courses. Materials marked Pro are paid, but you can try them for free for 7 days.

WITH OpenCourseware

Here you will find many courses from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Their materials, in addition to video lectures, include a course plan, notes, homework, exam questions. Certificates are not issued. 

Teaching programming at the university

To become a successful programmer, you need to have a good knowledge of the basics of mathematics, algorithms, calculations, principles of network and server administration and networking. All this is well taught in universities. Knowing these things will make it easier for you to learn any programming language and develop in different directions. 

Many companies do not look for a diploma of specialized education, but still the crust will not be superfluous.

Students of technical universities already in the process of learning begin to look for the first orders, and in the last years they get a permanent job. 

It is best to enter the faculty of computer science or mathematics, physics, engineering. You can go to study in any institution where technical specialties are taught, for example, in:

  • MIPT;
  • MSTU named after N.E. Bauman;
  • National Research University Higher School of Economics;
  • SPbPU;
  • Saint Petersburg State University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics;
  • Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov and others.

For admission, you need to take the exam in Russian, mathematics, computer science or physics. You need to score from about 250 points, some institutions require more than 400 points. You can study on a budget or for a fee. 

Is it possible to learn programming on your own 

You can learn programming on your own, it all depends on perseverance. Typically, this takes a year or two. 

You can start learning with books, such as Object-Oriented Analysis and Design with Sample Applications by Grady Booch. By the way, OOP is the basis from which to start learning. In addition, the interview may ask questions about the RPF and its understanding. 

In addition, there are other useful books that are worth reading for all beginners:

  • “The Art of Programming”, Donald Knuth;
  • Programmer’s Career, G. Luckman McDowell
  • “My own programmer. How to learn to code and get a job on Ebay?”, Corey Althoff
  • The Programmer’s Way by John Sonmez
  • Programming Gem by John Bentley
  • “Clean code. Create, analyze and refactor, Robert K. Martin
  • “Algorithms. Construction and analysis”, Thomas H. Kormen.

Free materials

Above, we cited resources where you can get free training in your chosen specialty. This is a great option for self-study. The information in such materials is structured, which means that you can assimilate it step by step.

You can also learn from video tutorials on YouTube, for example, on channels:

  • HONcode : A channel on how to create a game or website.
  • Dmitry Afanasyev: video tutorials on PHP, MySQL, Git & MercurialHg, HTML and CSS.
  • Start Android: Video tutorials on how to develop apps and games for Android. 

Constant practice

Programming requires a lot of practice on simple problems. When they become very boring for you, you can move on to more complex ones.

For training, you can take any task from the network and repeat it. You can also practice on special resources:

  • Codingame : The site offers a playful way to practice writing code.
  • Empire of Code : Here you can practice TypeScript and Python.
  • C Puzzles : Practice on C.
  • Exercism : You can practice in 57 languages ​​on this site. Tasks must be completed on your PC, and then the mentor will check them. 
  • MAXimal : the site will help you master the algorithms. 
  • Codewars : a collection for practicing writing code in different languages. 

Example task from Codewars

How much do programmers earn

Salary in programming depends on the company, direction, and experience of the employee. According to a study by the recruiting company ReaLHR at the beginning of 2022, the average salary of a Junior developer in Moscow starts at 97,701 rubles. Here is the rest of the salary data in different areas of IT and for specialists with different experience:

Before choosing a language and direction in programming, you can study the vacancies on There you will see what salaries companies offer to specialists without experience and what requirements they indicate. 


It takes many months of hard work to become a programmer. In the process of learning, you will have unsolvable, at first glance, tasks, and you will want to quit everything. This is fine. 

Difficulties will be in finding the first job. Many companies do not want to take on a newcomer. He needs to be trained by more experienced (and expensive) specialists, and the chances that he will leave the company after gaining experience are high. But still Junior-specialists without experience are hired.

Get ready for the fact that you will receive more than a dozen rejections. But don’t stop and keep going to interviews. Remember everything that was asked of you, and improve your knowledge in what you “swim”. Sooner or later you will get a job that will help you quickly grow in the profession.